YC-03 Fluid Bed Processor For Granulator & Coating

  • From a small test to pilot scale, one machine is enough to complete the whole process, which can process 300g-3000g/time.
  • The granules after granulation have good fluidity, firmness, and solubility.
  • Suitable for protein, enzyme preparation, traditional Chinese medicine, food and accessories, materials, etc. Used by more than 1,500 university research institutes and enterprises in the world.
  • Suitable for high viscosity and sugary materials, high material yield.

Pilotech Fluid Bed Processor For Granulator & Coating

YC-03 fluid bed processor (spray granulator), double spray head design for top spray, two spray heads can be switched online to adapt to different sizes of particles, the air inlet is equipped with primary, medium and high-efficiency filtration to meet the D-class cleanliness requirements of the clean area.

In line with GMP regulations, the unique backflushing system guarantees high material yield and can replace pots of different volumes to meet the experimental needs of different batch materials.

Sr.noParameterPilotech YC-03 fluidized bed dryer&granulator&coating
1FunctionSpray granulator, coating, fluid bed drying,mixing
2Spray granulator capacityMax. 3000g/batch
3Minimum sample volume150g
4granulator temperature40-150⁰C
5Compressed air1-4 Bar
6CoatingMax. 3000g/batch
7MixingMax. 3000g/batch
8Nozzle typeTwo fluid nozzle
9Nozzle jet0.7mm standard/(1.0/1.5/2.0mm available)
10Airflow0-150 mᶟ/h
11Peristaltic pumpMax. 3000ml/h
12Main chamber volume30L
13Heater power6KW
14Main chamber materialSUS304 Stainless steel
15Body materialSUS304 Stainless steel
16Seal of cyclone/cylinderSilicone
18Operation modeAutomatic/Manual
19Display7-Inch LCD display ,USB port

Fluid Bed Processor

Pilotech YC-03 fluid bed processor can be used for drying, granulation, and coating of materials.

Our fluid bed processor is designed for small-scale experiments and pilot-scale trials, with a capacity of 5kg, 3kg, 1kg, 500g, and 300g. Other specifications can also be customized.

YC-03 Fluid Bed Processor For Granulator & Coating
YC-03 Fluid Bed Processor For Granulator & Coating

We have been producing the fluid bed process for over 15 years, and over 1500 customers worldwide are using our products. Many of our products are still functioning well after over 10 years in use.

The fluidizing chamber adopts a composite structure of SUS304 stainless steel and borosilicate glass. The steel part ensures the sturdiness of the structure, while the glass part allows convenient observation.

Pilotech YC-03 fluid bed processor adopts PLC control, and with the patented software, the operation is very convenient. The interface is in English or can be customized to your native language to facilitate operating the fluid bed processor.

Pilotech YC-03 fluid bed processors make granules by two means, “fluidized bed granulation with spray” and “spray granulation in fluidized bed”. The former uses air as the fluidizing gas, which is heated and pumped in from the bottom of the fluidized bed of the powder to be granulated. The binder is sprayed into the fluidized bed from a two-fluid nozzle to bind and granulate the powder. The latter, on the other hand, spray the feed liquid on to the seed particles in the fluidized bed, which is dried to directly form the granules.

YC-03 Fluid Bed Processor For Granulator & Coating
YC-03 Fluid Bed Processor For Granulator & Coating

Our YC-03 fluid bed processor can also be used for coating, since the spray is very uniform, while the coating can be very even, thin, and strong.

We also prepared tutorial video for the fluid bed processor, so that you can get familiar with the device faster and use it more efficiently.

If you want to get more information about YC-03 fluid bed processor, please feel free to contact us for best price & catalog now.

Fluid Bed Processor: The Ultimate FAQs Guide

This guide will answer all questions you have been asking about the fluid bed processor.

From classification, working principle, fluidization technique, benefits, or nozzle designs, you will find all information right here.

Keep reading to learn more.

What is Fluid Bed Processor?

Fluidized bed processor is equipment designed to perform granulation, drying, and coating applying principle of operation of the fluid bed system.

Furthermore, this system brings grained/powder substances in a floating state, with circulating air flow capable to interchange heat and materials with floating material.

Fluid bed processor

Fluid bed processor

The innovative designs of equipment cover a smaller area without jeopardizing processing performance and offers cost-efficient processing solutions.

Which are the Types of Fluid Bed Processors?

Here are the common classifications of fluidized bed processors:

Fluidized Bed Dryer

The most common application of this type of fluid bed system is to dry and granulate powders.

Direct interaction between gas/air and particles is possible in the system, and you can use any kind of air or inert gas.

There are 2 types of fluid bed dryers commonly used:

a) Batch Vertical Fluidized Bed Dryer having Granulating Option

In this fluid bed dryer type, you can remove the drying chamber from the equipment to charge and discharge feedstock material.

It able to dry 5 to 200 Kg of material within a drying time of approximately 20-40 minutes.

It is possible to control the residence time of dried products which leads to homogenous drying.

Batch fluidized bed dryer is ideal for drying application where you require precise residence time control at reducing rate drying region.

However, small particle destruction happens.

Therefore, this fluidized bed drying equipment is appropriate for crystallized or granular materials.

There are two main types of batch fluid bed drying machine:

Reverse Turning Bed Fluid Bed Dryer

With this fluid bed dryer, you can discharge all the dried products at once by spinning the gas dispersion plate.

You turn the plate in 90-degree direction using the control motor.

Rotating Discharge Fluid Bed Dryer

In this type of fluidized bed system, you discharge the dried material by opening the discharge port found at the dryer side.

The gas within the machine swirls and forces the dried product out via the discharge port.

This is possible due to the perforated plate utilized as gas dispersion plate.

b) Continuous Horizontal Vibrating Conveyor Fluid Bed Dryer

In this fluid bed dryer design, the system transfers dried material to another drying chamber via an opening at the partition plate base.

After drying, it discharges the materials through the overflow gate.

For large materials volumes, a continuous fluidized bed dryer is more appropriate than batch type.

The heated airflow into the chamber underneath the vibrating conveying deck.

It then goes through a punctured conveying surface and pass into a material wet bed, and results in fluidization of particles.

Because of conveyor vibrating movement, the fluid bed system maintains a fluidized bed of consistent thickness and density in any specific drying region.

c) Fluid Bed Granulator

In this type of fluid bed processor, a suction fan installed at the top section produces the airflow needed for powders fluidization.

An air heater heats the fluidization air to the required temperature.

Pumped from its holder, the fluidized bed granulator sprays granulating fluid via spray head over the fluidized particles.

Agglomeration of wetted particles takes place caused by contacting of the particles.

After achieving appropriate agglomeration, the system discontinues spray operation, dries the materials, and eventually discharges them from the granulator.

There are two primary fluidized bed granulator available for application in various industries:

Top Spray Fluid Bed Granulator

Here, the position of the spray nozzle is at the top of the product bowl.

Most product containers have a fine-mesh retention sieve at their base to permit small particle size.

The fluid bed system sprays the granulation solution over the static fluidized bed material within a lengthened expansion chamber.

 Spray drying system

Spray drying system

Rotating Disk Fluidized-Bed Granulator having Dryer Option

Rotating disk granulator allows integration of layering technology, which you can extend to the coating process.

When merged with the expansion chamber, the technique facilitates the creation of a rotating disk fluid bed granulator and coater equipment.

You can move the rotating disk down or up to establish a variable slit aperture between the disk outer perimeter and the container sidewall.

This facilitates independent regulation of velocity of air over air volume, as air enters product container via the aperture under negative pressure.

Similarly, the disk spins at differing speeds,s and material moves to outer positions under centrifugal force.

The stream of fluidizing air then lifts the materials into the expansion chamber.

Also, the cycle repeats as materials drop to the rotating disk center.

With layering technology, you can feed the dry product into wet bed, leading to the buildup of powder layers on the particle substrate.

After completion of the coating phase, you cut off the liquid spray and dry the materials within the product chamber.

Increasing the volume and temperature of the fluidizing air facilitates the drying of coated materials.

d) Fluid Bed Coater

Fluid Bed Coaters refers to equipment used for coating materials employing fluid bed technology.

In fluid bed coating, the fluid bed processor fluidizes the particles, sprays them with coating fluid and eventually dries them.

Tiny droplets and low spray medium viscosity guarantee a uniform product coating.

There are 3 main types of fluidized bed coaters available:

Fluid bed processor systems

Fluid bed processor system

  • Tangential-spray Coater
  • Bottom-spray coater
  • Top-spray Coater

These fluid bed processors differ in nozzles location or nozzle utilized to spray coating formulation.

Nonetheless, in each situation, the system sprays applies coating formulation onto independent suspended particles.

Subsequently, fluid bed coater cycles freshly coated particles into a region where either cooling or solvent vaporization solidifies the coating formulation.

You may repeat this cycle of coating and drying until you achieve the required coating thickness.

In tangential- or bottom-spray coaters, coating solution droplets from spray nozzle flow concurrent with gas stream employed in fluidization of particles.

They can deposit a uniform layer of coating material if the coating formulation constitutes a volatile solvent.

With top-spray fluid bed coating machine, the system sprays the coating formulation down over the fluidized bed.

Spray droplets from the nozzle flow countercurrent to gas stream till they influence the particles you are coating.

However, volatile solvents in coating formulation may vaporize from spray droplets in top-spray coaters.

This increases the solid constituents, possibly to a degree that they may not spread over the particles you are coating.

It is due to this fact that solvent-based coating formulations usually produce coated particles having interior void volume and permeable coatings.

Which are the Types of Fluidized-Bed Processors Based on Position of Spray System?

Fluid bed processors employ varying spray types to conduct various functions.

There are 3 main categories of fluid bed processors based on the position of the spray nozzle. Position of spraying system

Position of the spraying system

· Top-Spray Fluid Bed System

Here, the spray nozzle position is above the product container, expansion chamber, or distributor.

It sprays the coating/granulating fluid onto the particles’ fluidized bed.

You can utilize a top-spray fluid bed processor for granulation, coating, and drying.

It is perfect for processing larger powders, crystals, and pellets.

· Tangential Spray Fluidized Bed Processor

In this type of fluidized bed system, you will often find the spray nozzle located at the edge of a product container or expansion chamber.

It is possible to adjust the spray nozzle position, you can change and leave it at varying heights.

It functions by rotating a disk which will produce centrifugal force.

As air goes across the variable disk gaps, it develops a lifting force.

Through gravitational pull, the particles drop onto the spinning disk.

A mix of the forces results in granules having uniform contents due to thorough homogenous blending, coating, and drying.

· Bottom Spray Fluidized Bed Processor

This fluid bed processor is ideal for particle coating, where the system sprays from underneath particles bed up in product flow.

It integrates spray nozzles into the upward flow of up bed and hence totally encircled by the product.

You can achieve targeted and regulated particle movement by combining the Wurster column with a bottom plate.

This is necessary for optimal coating materials applied to the product you are processing.

What is a Fluidized Bed in Fluid Bed Processor?

Fluidized bed system

 Fluidized bed system

A fluidized bed refers to when a fluid bed system puts solid particles under suitable conditions to make them act like a fluid.

It typically achieves this by introducing pressurized fluid across the solid particles bed.

This makes the particulate medium to have properties and features of ordinary fluids, like free flowability under gravity.

Furthermore, the fluidization process commonly finds application in drying, granulation, and coating in pharmaceutical industry.

Which are the Fluidized Bed Types of Fluid Bed Processor?

You can categorize fluidized bed using their flow behavior into:

· Bubbling/Stationary Fluidized Bed

This refers to the traditional approach where the system uses gas/air at low velocities.

The particle fluidization is comparatively stationary, with the fluid bed processor entraining some fine particles.

· Circulating Fluidized Beds (CFB)

In this fluidized bed type, the gases flow at a higher velocity adequate to suspend the bed of particles, because of greater fluid kinetic energy.

The bed surface is less smooth and the system can entrain larger particles from the bed compared to stationary beds.

·  Vibratory Fluidized Beds

These are the same as stationary beds.

However, they incorporate mechanical vibration to cause additional particles of excitement for intensified entrainment.

· Flash/Transport Reactor

At velocities greater than CFB, the particle’s velocity approaches that of gas.

A fluidized bed processor substantially reduces slip velocity between solid particles and gas at the expense of less uniform heat distribution.

· Annular Fluidized Bed

With this type of fluidized bed, a big nozzle found at the bubble bed center introduces high-velocity gas.

It attains rapid blending zone over the adjacent bed similar to that in a CFB external loop.

·  Mechanically Fluidized Reactor

The fluid bed system uses a stirrer to excite particles and attain properties the same as to that of the properly-mixed fluidized bed.

You do not need fluidization gas.

· Narrow Fluidized Beds

In this fluidized bed type, the ratio between grain diameters and the tube is equivalent to or less than about 10.

The bed dynamics usually differ from other types due to strong confinement effects.

Moreover, it common to have granular plugs comprising of areas having high solid concentration taking turns with low solid concentrations.

Which are the Main Parts of Fluidized-Bed Processor?

Here are the main components of the fluidized bed system:

Parts of Fluid Bed Process

 Parts of fluid bed process

· Inlet Air System

It comprises of the heating chamber having a heating element, air flow meter, compressed air supply, and control valve for process air.

· Machine Tower

The main components of the fluid bed processor tower include:

  • Bottom plenum where you will find the fixing port of bottom spray gun.
  • Expansion chamber having spray port
  • Product container  to carry powders
  • Acrylic windows for viewing the process
  • filter housing where you install the materials retaining cartridge filter

· Spray System

Comprise of peristaltic spray pump and gun having atomizing air connection.

· Electrical System

Made up of electrical panels having logic controls, SMPs, terminals, and contactors.

· Pneumatic System

Comprise of air reservoirs, pressure gauges and regulators.

· Indication and  control  devices:

Consists of operating switches, pressure indicators and regulators, operating switches, temperature and indicator/control.

How Does Fluid Bed Processor Work?

Let’s look at the working principle of the three types of fluid bed processing systems:

Working Principle of Fluid Bed Dryer

 Fluid bed dryer

Fluid bed dryer

Fluid bed dryer functions on the principle of fluidization to get rid of excessive moisture out of powder particles.

The fluid bed drying process begins by placing the particles you want to dry inside the product container.

Then turn on the fluid bed drying machine and let the feedstock material flow directly to its drying bed.

Configure the drying parameters control panel based on your drying requirements.

Also, the system blows a hot air stream across spaces underneath the bed and into particles, causing their suspension in the air.

The upward forces working on suspended particles increases with the increasing velocity of hot air.

Immediately the upward force becomes equal to gravitational pull underneath the particles, there will be uniform particle suspension in air.

Due to the direct contact of particles with hot air, it eliminates all moisture from them.

The fluid bed dryer stops the blasting of air immediately after the particles attain the designated moisture content.

This enables the dried particles to drop, allowing you to release them for subsequent processing.

Working Principle of Fluid Bed Coating Equipment

There are different types of fluid bed coaters depending on the direction of spraying:

 Fluid bed coater

Fluid bed coater

· Top Spray Fluidized Bed Coater

The equipment is best for general coatings of particles.

The system fluidizes particles in the heated airflow, flows into the product container through a base plate.

Spray nozzle sprays the coating liquid in fluid bed from up against the flow of air (countercurrent).

Drying happens as particles keep rising in airflow.

Low spray medium viscosity and small droplets ensure uniform distribution.

The fluid bed processor continuously extract the dried, coated powder particles.

·         Bottom Spray Fluid Bed Coating Machine

Also referred to as a Wurster processor, this fluidized bed processor applies a similar principle of operation as the top spray type.

However, it has a spray nozzle fitted in the base plate resulting in a spray pattern that is co-current with the air feed.

Tangential Spray Coating (Rotor pellet coating)

Here, the tangential fluid bed processor sets the particles in spiral movement by means of a spinning base plate.

It injects air into the particle bed at the edge of the base plate.

The arrangement of the spray nozzle is tangential to the rotor disc.

It equally sprays co-currently into a particle bed.

Working Principle of Fluidized-Bed Granulator

Mini Spray Granulator

F Inside fluid bed granulator system

You can operate ordinary fluidized bed granulator depending on spray system location, either tangential-, top- or bottom-fluid bed granulator.

Generally, there is negligible difference between fluidized bed granulator and fluidized bed coating machine.

The gas velocities applied are somewhat the same, and the spray area covers a bigger section of particles bed.

This type of fluidized bed processor performs the granulation process by suspending particles in the fluidized bed air.

It then sprays binding agent from nozzles located either below, above, or tangentially to powder bed, based on granulator type.

What are the Applications of Fluid Bed Processors?

There are 4 main functions of fluidized bed processors, which include:

· Drying

A fluid bed system is an efficient means of drying powder particles.

During the fluidization process, the equipment eliminates liquid from the whole surface of every single particle.

The main advantages of a fluidized bed dryer are ideal drying time and exceptional heat exchange.

· Agglomeration/Granulation

Agglomeration in a fluidized bed processor is a modern technique of producing granulates from particles.

The fluid bed granulator uses either water, organic solvent, or any other binder as the granulation fluid.

After granulation, the machine dries or cools the moist granulates.

This leads to loose agglomerates with low bulk density and exceptionally water-soluble.

· Particle Coating

Spray coating using a fluidized bed processor is the best and commonly employed particle coating technique in food, pharmaceutical and agricultural industries.

Accordingly, bottom-spray fluid bed coating is the widely used technique in fluidized bed coating systems.

Wurster technology features excellent properties for particle coating.

It is the superior method among other types of coating techniques to attain consistent and high-quality particle coating.

· Pelletizing

The fluid bed processor mixes and moistens the powder during pelletizing.

Simultaneously, you can add a binding solution or solvent.

The centrifugal movement generates granules which the system spheronize into homogenous, dense pellets.

You can realize selective product features through layering or direct pelletizing.

What are the Benefits of Fluid Bed Processor?

Here are some of the advantages of a fluidized bed processor you will enjoy when using the particles processing machine:

  • Reduces the number of equipment needed since you can use a fluid bed systems for spray granulation, coating and drying.

  • Ensures better and uniform granulation due to rapid particle fluidization process. Moreover, the fluid bed processor sprays the granulating fluid on continual basis enabling efficient and consistent mixing of liquid and powder.
  • Most fluidized bed systems use CNC built distribution plate.

This facilitates proper powder fluidization, thus offering the best outcome during processing.

  • There are wide variety of fluid bed processors from compact pilot-scale models to large-scale production models.
  • Reduces cost because the system is a 3-in-1 machine, with drying, granulation, and coating capabilities
  • Fluid bed processor fully employs PLC system. This allows online report production, alarm history, online un-editable printing, and password protected system according to your specifications.

Which are the Nozzle Designs in Fluid Bed Granulator?

Let’s look at the key designs of spray nozzles used in fluid bed granulator:

i. Pressure Nozzle

This spray nozzle type has the capability to break up fluid due to its intrinsic instability, impact on fixed plate and atmospheric impact.

ii. Rotating Nozzle

Also referred to as rotary atomizer, the nozzle type mind finds use in fluid bed spray drying processes.

iii. Airless Spray Nozzle

An airless nozzle separates the fluid into 2 streams, which it later fuse together at the nozzle orifice.

The contact forms droplets.

iv. Gas Atomizing Nozzle

Also known as a two-fluid nozzle, the compressed air (second fluid) atomizes binder solution (first fluid).

Gas atomizing spray nozzle is the most common nozzle type in fluid bed granulators.

Which are the Vital Parameters in Fluidized Bed Processor?

Here are the key parameters that impact the end product created using fluidized bed systems:

A. Apparatus Parameters

1) Position of air distribution plate impacts on airflow pattern within the body.

2) Shape of the annular bottom of the machine provides better fluidization and product.

3) Height of nozzle in case of granulator and coater. It serves an important purpose in coating since atomized coating solution ought not to dry before getting to the particle surface.

4) Negative and positive pressure processing

B. Process Parameters

In Drying Process

The following are essential inlet air parameters that are relevant in all operations of the fluid bed processor (granulation, coating, and drying).

1) Temperature

Increasing inlet air temperature leads to an increase in the rate of drying and vice versa.

You cannot use this technique of increasing drying rate always since high temperature harm some materials.

2) Humidity

Inlet air humidity needs to be as reduced as possible.

Ideally, you should use dehumidified air for a quicker drying rate.

This is because of the drying rate increases as inlet air humidity decrease.

3) Air Flow Rate

It is essential to control the airflow rate properly to achieve efficient utilization of drying air.

The increasing rate of airflow results in an increased drying rate, though it as well increases the cost of drying.

The fluid bed processor should allow the drying air adequate time to stay in touch with the materials.

This facilitates proper heat and mass transfer, which in turn decreases the cost of drying.

Rate of air flow ought not to be too slow or fast however, optimized to ensure efficient drying.

In Granulation Process

1) Nozzle Location in Connection With Material Height.

You determine the position of the nozzle based on bed height.

Its location should suitable to ensure better satisfactory contact of particles you are granulating with binder agent.

2) Spray Rate

Optimize spray rate otherwise there will be poor wetting/granulation of the particles.

This will inhibit fluidization and the production of quality granules.

3) Spray Pressure

It is instrumental for proper binder solution atomization.


  • Outlet gas temperature.
  • Pressure drop over exhaust filters.

The above 2 parameters provide signs of the fluidization process efficiency.

You can determine the efficiency of a fluidized bed processor by measuring the 2 parameters.

In Coating Process

1)  Spray Nozzle Distance

The efficiency of fluid bed coater relies on the coating solution quality.

The solution needs not to dry before getting to fluidized materials.

2) Droplet Size

The droplet size greatly determines the quality of the coat.

Therefore, the size needs neither be very small nor very big.

3) Spray Rate

The rate of flow ought not to be too slow or too fast, but you need to optimize the rate to enable efficient coating.

4) Spray Pressure

Coating solution atomization depends on the pressure of spray.

For that matter, to ensure proper atomization, the droplet size needs to be optimum.


  • Moisture content inside the processing chamber. There should be no moisture in case you are processing hygroscopic materials.
  • You should select the method of fluidized bed coating depending on its purpose.
  • Determine drying time based on product and desired coat quality.

C. Product Parameters

  • In Drying Process
  1. Initial Material Moisture Content

This parameter ought not to be high or else it will increase drying time.

  1. Batch Size

Make sure it is compact and optimized depending on compatibility.

  • In Granulation Process
  1. Granulating Agent

The solvent choice utilized in binder solution determines granulating agent type. It is best when the solvent is aqueous since organic types might cause explosions.

Binder solutions utilized in material granulation needs to be applied in optimum concentration to attain good granules quality. Moreover, granulating agent temperature ought not to be high or else it will dry before making it to powder surface.

  1. Starting Material

You should configure the fluid bed processor to optimize the feedstock material fluidization for superior contact with granulation fluid.

Use hydrophilic granulating agent for exception contact and material granulation when the starting material is hydrophobic.

  • In Coating Process
  1. Coating Agent

The coating type required should determine the choice of the coating agent.

You should select the solvent depending on the coating agent properties.

Make sure to check the solvent for inflammability in case it is volatile.

Set the fluid bed processor to optimize the granulating fluid concentration to ensure even spreading and formation of droplets.

Also, ensure the coating solution temperature is not high that the solution dries before getting to the surface of the particles.

  1. Starting Material

Shape and density of Particle shape significantly impact the process of coating.

Are there Disadvantages of Fluid Bed Granulator?

Yes, there are drawbacks of fluid bed granulation machine, which include:

YC03 Fluid Bed Processor

Fluid bed processor

  • Difficult to Attain Densification

Batch fluid bed granulator makes it very difficult to attain a certain level of densification.

  • Prolonged Resident Time

Fluid bed granulators exhibit longer resident time.

This in turn prolongs the time spent during the granulation of particles.

  • Use high Binders Quantity

There is a need to constantly spray the granulating fluid during the process of granulation.

This continuous spraying leads to wastage of the binder solution.

  • High Initial Purchase and Installation Cost

Buying and installing a fluid bed granulator requires a lot of initial capital investment.

  • Prone to Clocking of Filter

This type of fluid bed processor encounters frequent filter breakdown, clocking, and development of electrostatic charges.

The raises possibilities of the explosion of solvent during the fluidization process.

  • Creation of low-density granules

The end products developed by fluid bed granulators often exhibit extremely low density.

How do you Determine Efficiency in the Fluidization Process of the Fluid bed Processor?

It is possible to detect fluidization process efficiency by observing the following:

  • A rise in fluidization process rate like drying of particles.
  • Advancement in thermal efficiency
  • Better fluidized bed processor results within a smaller section
  • Control precision such a controlling temperature, airflow rate among other parameters.
  • Reduction in product handling cost, hence higher ROI.

What is Minimum Fluidization in Fluid Bed Processor?

Minimum fluidization refers to the fluidization of particles at minimum velocity.

Minimum fluidization velocity describes the gas superficial speed where the gas drag force and weight of particle are equal.

Minimum fluidization makes one of the main specifications that you should factor in during the process of designing fluidized beds.

The beds feature varying minimum fluidization velocities based on applications of the fluid bed processor.



Which are the Modes of Granulation in Fluid Bed Processor?

Also referred to as agglomeration, the process of fluid bed granulation entails the suspension of particles in a jet of air.

Then, you spray a granulating fluid from the sides, top, or bottom of the fluid bed system into the fluidized bed.

Particles in the spray path become moderately wet and get sticky.

The tacky particles bump into other particles within the material fluidized bed and stick to them to create granules.

There are 2 different modes of how fluid bed processor granulate particles:


Inside fluid bed granulation system

· Dry Stage Granulation

Here, the system only needs to wet the particles slightly to make them sticky and adhere to one another.

You apply the granulating solution at a rate equivalent to or lower than its rate of evaporation rate.

This makes the particles stay “dry” throughout the whole dry stage granulation process.

· Wet Stage Granulation

In this process, you need a considerable quantity of granulating solution or moisture before particles become sticky enough to adhere to one another.

The fluid bed processor applies a granulation solution at a rate greater than its vaporization rate till particles accumulate sufficient moisture to agglomerate.

Remember, the type of granulation fluid and characteristics of wet particles will dictate the most suitable mode of granulation.

Though dry stage granulation is more popular, wet stage granulation forms denser products.

Moreover, there are 3 main granulation techniques used in a fluid bed processor, including:

1) Recrystallization: applied when the feedstock materials are dissolvable insolvent (normally water). Crystalline bridge develops during drying and helps in holding granules together.

2) Binding agent: use this when you require a stronger binder or when the feedstock material is insolvable insolvent.

3) Layering: Builds granules beginning with a substrate, then adding sequential binder layer and primary material till you form the desired granules size.

How Does Wurster Coating Happen in Fluid Bed Processor?

Wurster process is instrumental in the coating of particles, granules, pellets, tablets, and spheres.

Wurster fluid bed processors utilize a range of coating formulations, comprising of hot melts, hot saturated solutions, and organic/aqueous solutions.

Furthermore, the Wurster coating process involves separating the particles within the fluid bed from each other in a jet of air/gas.

The system sprays coating formulation from the base of the fluid bed into suspended particles (bottom spray).

The process happens within a specially redesigned fluid bed partitioned into 2 zones.

Also, the interior section is an intense velocity zone, which segregates particles of material and pneumatically conveys them across the spray nozzle.

After going through the nozzle, the particles get into the expansion chamber of the fluid bed processor.

Here, they slow down and drop back inside the exterior area of the material bowl.

The system dries the coating with the particles still suspended.

This prevents the occurrence of agglomeration as the particles go into the calm section of fluid bed.

Coated particles within the calm storage zone stay fluidized sufficient enough to enable them to keep flowing towards the base of bowl.

On reaching the base, the Wurster fluid bed system draws the particles back in the high-velocity stream of air.

It repeats the cycle and the fluid bed coating process continues till you obtain the desired coating level.

Which is the Material Used in Making Fluid Bed Processor?

Nearly all fluid bed processor brands use stainless steel as the main material.

It is the ideal material for making the body and contact parts of the equipment since it is:

  • Corrosion-resistant
  • Does not taint other materials
  • Readily available
  • Can endure extreme temperature and pressure from operations of fluid bed processor.

How do you Optimize Fluid bed processor?

Here are the ways you can optimize processing in fluid bed systems:

  • Utilize Equipment Under Proper Operation Conditions

Make sure you service the machine on a regular basis and always ensure it is in the correct working state.

  • Use Appropriate Machine for the Correct Purpose

During the selection of the fluid bed processors, you should opt for a machine that meets your processing requirements.

  • Set the Correct Parameter for Fluid Bed Processing

You should set the right configurations that correspond with the requirements of fluid bed processing.

The control panel enables you to optimize the operations by setting them to the correct specifications.

Remember to also enter the right timing of the fluidized bed processor.

What is the Difference Between Batch Fluid Bed Processor and Continuous Fluid Bed Processor?

Here is all you need to know about these fluid bed processors:

· Continuous Fluid Bed Processor

 Continuous fluid bed processor

Continuous fluid bed processor

The fundamental concept of a continuous fluidized bed processor relies on a design that integrates various inlet and outlet air chambers.

Each chamber comes with its independent air supply system for cooling or heating.

You can therefore adjust process parameters for every zone to give maximal control of the operation and product properties.

Operating this totally automated system requires minimum involvement, and you can program to manage multiple recipes having differing process parameters.

The continuous fluid bed system can serve as a dryer, agglomerator (granulator, or continuous coater generating high quality, regular products.

· Batch Fluid Bed Processor

 Batch fluid bd processor

Batch fluid bed processor

Application of batch fluid bed systems is typically for small-scale processing of several products.

It is the best when rapid cycle times is not essential, need to process specific batch sizes, and there is frequent product changeover.

Moreover, batch fluidized bed processors are more appropriate for products needing multiple, sophisticated procedures.

Batch processing features sequential steps, which is different from continuous processing.

Furthermore, they are less complex in comparison to continuous fluid bed systems.

Regardless, the secret to the most effective and versatile batch fluid bed processor design is the whole engineering.

This spans from process technology used to the choice of suitable components.

Which are the Factors to Consider when Choosing Fluid Bed Processor?

Here are the important parameters that you should consider during the selection of a fluidized bed system:

· Capacity Requirement

It is important to consider your operational capacity since it will dictate the fluid bed type to select.

For example, it is advisable to opt for a top-spray fluid bed system in case you are running high capacity operations.

·  Raw Material Properties

Ingredients and features of feedstock material will significantly influence the performance of the equipment.

For example, you can select a tangential fluid bed processor if handling materials having various ingredients with considerable bulk density differences.

· Finished Products Requirements

Bottom spray fluidized bed processor is the best option when the requirements of end product are exceptionally high.

On the other hand, simpler top spray system is the right choice in case you are on budget.

· Process Time/Yield

The type of fluid bed processor you use will dictate the production time and quality of end products.

For example, the right choice for operations requiring more time is top spray fluidized bed equipment.

Similarly, for homogenous, high quality end products, you should go for bottom spray system.

· Application Versatility

It is advisable to choose an equipment that has the capability to perform different fluid bed processes.

Your choice should be a flexible machine that permits you to perform adjustments based on your manufacturing requirements.

· Level of Loading/Coating

When you require substrate layered pellets, select a fluid bed processor having bottom spray.

Likewise, for high dose loading operations, a tangential type of processor is the ideal choice.

What are the Advantages of Coating Utilizing Fluid Bed Processor?

Here are the main benefits of particles coating utilizing a fluid bed processor:

Saves Cost and Time

Being a fast automatic equipment, fluid bed coater saves you time during processing.

In addition, due to minimal downtime, the machine helps you save significantly in terms of maintenance costs.

· Superior Heat Exchange

The machine features exceptional heat exchange attributes, which aid in heating of blasting air.

· Easy Cleaning and Maintenance

Fluidized bed coating machine has a very straightforward cleaning and maintenance schedule at reduced cost.

· Easy to Operate and Handle

Due to the automation of the fluid bed processor, you only require basic skills to handle and manage it.

This further reduces operational costs in training personnel.

Which are the Factors Affecting the Type of Spray Nozzle to Use in Fluid Bed Processor?

During the selection of a spray nozzle to use in your system, you should factor in the following aspects:

  • Processing option
  • The processing principle of equipment
  • Mode of operation which may either be continuous or batch
  • Application of the fluid bed processor

Are there Multi-Function Fluid Bed Processors?

Yes, you can find multifunction fluidized bed systems.

These refer to fluid bed processors having the capacity to serve more than one role.

For instance, there is a machine that is able to perform, granulating, coating, and particle drying simultaneously.

Most fluid best processors come as multifunctional systems providing you’re the capability to carry out different processes concurrently.

Why is it important to Ensure Quality Standard Compliance in Fluid Bed Processor?

Choosing a machine that complies with relevant international quality standards is crucial due to the following factors:

  • Complying with quality standards protects you from manipulation by exploitative manufacturers/suppliers dealing in fake equipment.
  • Quality standard compliance equally guarantees the safety of the machine both to your operators and the environment.
  • It also gives them confidence that the fluid bed processor is of top quality and durable.

What is the Importance of Validation of Fluid bed Processor?

Validation refers to documented proof offering a high level of assurance that the equipment will constantly generate products that match its set specifications.

Furthermore, validation analysis is an important aspect of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP).

You should perform it based on predefined protocols.

After analysis, record, prepare, and store a written report summing up outcomes and conclusions.

Therefore, you should consider validation in the following circumstances:

  • New fluid bed processor
  • Entirely new process
  • Modified equipment and process to fit changing priorities; and
  • An operation where finished product test is below par and unreliable product quality indicator.

The validation master plan (VMP) clearly describes and documents the main components of the validation scheme.

Validation of the fluid bed processor entails the following 4 sequential phases:

· Prequalification

Consist of supplier specification, design and functional examination.

· Qualification

Entails installation and functional examination.

· Process Validation

Covers the first validation of fresh processes, successive modified processes validation and re-validation.

13. Which are the Sequential Phases in Qualification of Fluid Bed processor?

Fluid bed system qualification involves installation and functioning evaluation including:

· Design Qualification (DQ)

This refers to the initial step of validation of fluid bed processor.

The design of the equipment should comply with GMP.

· Installation Qualification (IQ)

You perform installation qualification on new or altered equipment.

It entails installation of the machine, services, piping, and checking if instrumentation is to the latest engineering designs and specifications.

Moreover, it also includes the collection and comparison of manufacturer operating instructions, constriction materials verification, and calibration requirement.

The installation qualification conforms to requirements if all the named parameters are acceptable.

· Operational Qualification (OQ)

OQ describes all elements of comprehensive fluid bed processor testing.

Tests consist of a condition or batch of conditions covering lower and upper operating limits.

Most of the qualification testing involves working with test batches.

Operation qualification completion facilitates fulfillment of calibration, working and cleaning operations, working training and protective maintenance requirements.

· Performance Qualification (PQ)

Performance qualification determines systems and subsystems of fluid bed processor function as intended.

This confirms that the equipment ensures repeatability and is constantly producing quality products.

At times referred to as process validation, it represents the stage where you use the equipment thoroughly.

There exist 2 fundamental modes of validation of process itself.

These are different from qualification of fluidized bed processor, measurement and control instruments calibration, environmental factors evaluation, etc.

The approaches include experimental strategy and strategy based on historical data analysis.

This experimental strategy, which is suitable for both concurrent and prospective validation, might involve:

  • Comprehensive product testing
  • Worst case/Challenge trials
  • Simulation process trials
  • Process parameters control (mostly physical).

Process controls consist of inspection of raw materials, in-process regulations, and targets for the end product.

The goal is to observe the off-line and on-line performance of the production process of the fluid bed processor and subsequently validate it.

Even after validating the production process, cGMP requires that you establish a well-written plan for process controls to observe its performance.

Representatives from Quality Assurance, Engineering, and Production should certify the validation document before using the equipment in routine production.

· Maintenance Qualification (MQ)

Maintenance qualification is essential in describing and documenting routine repairs and maintenance.

For this reason, it helps guarantee that you can continually operate the fluidized bed processor without downtime.

It covers all relevant measures encompassing cleaning, repair, and maintenance.

You document all information on maintenance qualifications in the service logbook.

What is the Pharmaceutical Applications of Fluidized-Bed Processor?

 Fluid bed processor

 Fluid bed processor

  • Fluidized bed dryer finds extensive application in the pharmaceutical sector to decrease moisture composition of pharmaceutical granules and powder.
  • Fluid bed coater gives a layer instrumental in protecting active ingredients of drugs from external impacts hence increasing shelf life.
  • Shell coating as well raises the storage capability of tablet particles.
  • Coaters also help in masking the taste or smell of badly tasting tablets.
  • Fluid bed granulator helps in the manufacturing of solid-dose pharmaceuticals. It is instrumental in mixing and granulating raw materials.

Can you Customize Fluid Bed Processor?

Yes, customization of a fluidized bed processor is possible in order to satisfy your specific design requirements.

In consultation with your team of experienced engineers, you can develop a special machine design you want to be produced.

After designing, find a reliable and skilled manufacturer who will help you determine the design workability and make relevant adjustments.

Consequently, the producer will develop the custom fluid bed processor as par your specifications.

Are there Pilot-Scale Fluid Bed Processors?

Yes, you can find fluid bed systems designed for pilot-scale trials and small-scale experiments, with reduced capacity.

They are fit for R&D, small-scale production, and clinical batches.

Similar to large-scale fluidized bed processors, pilot-scale equipment also combines various processes, that is, agglomeration, coating, and drying in one system.

The machine guarantee hiked profitability with decreased space requirements, simple handling and various individual options.

Which Industries Use Fluid Bed Processor?

  • Pharmaceutical Industry for manufacturing of tablet drugs
  • Chemical Industry in improving general handling storage time
  • Cosmetic Industry in manufacturing various beauty products
  • Food Processing Industry in enhancing dispersibility and flowability of food products
  • Petrochemical industry

How do you Specify Fluid Bed Processor?

Here are the key information to include during the specification of the fluidized bed processor:

  • Spray granulator capacity
  • granulator temperature
  • Minimum sample volume
  • Airflow
  • Nozzle type
  • Nozzle jet
  • Coating capacity
  • Mixing Capacity
  • Compressed air
  • Main chamber volume
  • Main chamber material
  • Operation mode
  • Heater power
  • Peristaltic pump
  • Seal of cylinder/Cyclone
  • Dimensions
  • Body material
  • Display

Which are the Safety and Quality Certifications for Fluidized-bed Processor?

  • cGMP Certification
  • CE Certification
  • RoHS
  • FDA Certification
  • CCC

At Pilotech, we design and manufacture a range of fluid bed processors depending on your specific needs and requirements.

Contact us now for any inquiries and questions on the fluid bed processor.

Send Inquiry Now!

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